Warsaw, nurturing over 400 years of pride as a capital, is Poland’s largest city and an economic, political, and cultural centre. The symbol of the city is the Mermaid, featured on the city seal. Warsaw is a bustling metropolis and features an unforgettable history. A city where a fourth of the terrain is covered by parkland and a city of culture for all tastes and budgets.
Luxembourg is a point of contact between the Germanic- and Romance-language communities of Europe, and three languages are regularly employed in the grand duchy itself: Luxembourgish, German, and French. The peoples of Luxembourg and their languages reflect the grand duchy’s common interests and close historical relations with its neighbours.
The founding of Rome goes back to the very early days of civilization. It is so old, it is today known as 'the eternal city'. The Romans believed that their city was founded in the year 753 BC. Modern historians though believe it was the year 625 BC. Rome is the capital city of Italy, the home of the Vatican and the Papacy, and was the center of a vast, ancient empire. It remains a cultural and historical focus within Europe.
Paris is the capital and largest city of France.The city is built on an arc of the River Seine, and is thus divided into two parts: the Right Bank to the north and the smaller Left Bank in the south.The city proper has about 2 million residents (1999 census: 2,147,857). The Greater Paris metropolitan area has about 11 million residents (1999 census: 11,174,743).
London, England’s capital, set on the River Thames, is a 21st-century city with history stretching back to Roman times. At its centre stand the imposing Houses of Parliament, the iconic ‘Big Ben’ clock tower and Westminster Abbey, site of British monarch coronations. Across the Thames, the London Eye observation wheel provides panoramic views of the South Bank cultural complex, and the entire city.
Vienna, also described as Europe's cultural capital, is a metropolis with unique charm, vibrancy and flair. It boasts outstanding infrastructure, is clean and safe, and has all the inspiration that you could wish for in order to discover this wonderful part of Europe.Vienna, the capital of Austria, 2 million inhabitants, is situated on the banks of the Danube. The influx of visitors from all over the world has made Vienna the most popular urban tourist destination in Austria.
Located in the central Italian region of Tuscany, Florence is one of the most breathtaking cities in Europe. Celebrated as the birthplace of the Renaissance, The city is home to many of its most famous artistic treasures. Consequently, it's a popular destination for tourists and students of art and culture.
Barcelona was founded by Phoenicians and Carthaginians. The original name of the city was Barcino, probably named after the Carthaginian ruler Hamilcar Barca. The Romans arrived on the 1st century B.C. choosing as capital of the region, first Tarraco (current Tarragona) and since the 3rd century A.D. Barcino (Barcelona) . Remainings from this period can still be found in Barcelona especially in the Plaza del Rei and in the Gothic quarter.
Amsterdam is a city, but it is also a country by itself, a small nation inside a larger one”, wrote Geert Mak in ‘Amsterdam: a brief life of the city’. You’ll probably not only find the city different from the rest of Holland, but also different to anywhere else you have been. Take any city of comparable size in any country and you’ll conclude that Amsterdam is exceptional. With its 175 nationalities it is the most multicultural city in the world. It has the appeal of a metropolis yet at the same time it doesn’t seem bigger than a huge village full of little wonders to explore.
Prague soon became the seat of the kings of Bohemia, some of whom also reigned as emperors of the Holy Roman Empire in later times. The city flourished during the 14th century reign of Charles IV, who ordered the building of the New Town, the Charles Bridge, St Vitus Cathedral: the oldest gothic cathedral in Central Europe, which is actually inside the Castle, and the Charles University. Prague was then the third-largest city in Europe.
Tuscany is one of twenty regions in Italy. The region is located in the central, western part of the country, north of Rome and south of Genoa. It is bounded by the Apennine Mountains to the North and East, the Apuan Alps on the northwest and by the Tyrrhenian Sea on the West. Its land area is about 9,000 square miles (23.300 square kilometers). Its major cities are Florence, Pisa, Siena and Arezzo Its major river, the Arno, begins in the Apennines and heads toward the coast - both Florence and Pisa sit astride the Arno river.
The city of Athens, Greece is one of the world’s oldest cities with a history spanning approximately 3,400 years. According to Greek mythology, the city was named after the goddess Athena after she won a competition with Poseidon over who would become the protector of the city. The city’s location (in the fertile plains of Attika between the Parnitha, Penteli, and Hymettos mountains), proximity to the Saronic Gulf, and its mild climate were probably the main reasons why the founders of the city chose to live there.
The name Dublin comes from the Gaelic dubh linn or “black pool” - where the Poddle stream met the River Liffey to form a deep pool at Dublin Castle. The city's modern name - Baile Áth Cliath – means the “town of the ford of the hurdles”. Ireland's four principal routeways converged at a crossing place made of hurdles of interwoven saplings straddling the low-tide Liffey.
Originally named Mayrit, the city of Madrid was founded by the emir Muhammad at the close of the ninth century A.D. The city came to prominence during the Arab occupation of the Iberian peninsula, but passed into Christian hands during the Reconquest of Spain by the Christians.
Berlin, the German capital, is renowned for its exceptional variety of attractions, its flourishing cultural scene and a way of life that's both fast-paced and relaxed.Berlin is a city of art, artists and museums. More than 170 museums, including those on the famous museum island, put the treasures of the world on public display. Culturally minded visitors from all corners of the globe come to Berlin to see performances by leading orchestras – such as the internationally celebrated Berlin Philharmonic – and to attend ballets and operas at the three major opera houses.
Budapest, the capital city of Hungary and the country's principal industrial, commercial and transportation centre.It became a single city occupying both banks of the Danube river with the amalgamation in 1873 of right-bank Buda and Óbuda with Pest on the left (east) bank.Budapest's recorded history begins with the Roman town of Aquincum, founded around 89 AD on the site of an earlier Celtic settlement near what was to become Óbuda, and from 106 until the end of the 4th century the capital of the province of lower Pannonia.
Stockholm, with its 900,000 inhabitants, is the largest municipality in Sweden. The City Council is the supreme decision-making body of the City of Stockholm. The City provides Stockholm’s inhabitants with a multitude of different municipal services. Most of the municipal activities in Stockholm are carried out in administrative or corporate form.
Lisbon (in Portuguese, Lisboa) is the capital and largest city of Portugal.Lisbon is situated at 38 degrees, 43 minutes north, and 9 degrees, 8 minutes west, making it the westernmost capital in Europe. It is located in the west of the country, on the Atlantic coast at the point where the river Tagus (Portuguese Tejo) flows into the Atlantic Ocean. The city occupies an area of 84.6 km2. The city comprises 53 freguesias. It is important to say that, unlike most major cities, the city boundaries are narrowly defined around the historical city perimeter. This gave rise to the existence of several administratively defined cities around Lisbon, such as Loures, Amadora and Oeiras, which in fact are part of the metropolitan perimeter of Lisbon.
Istanbul, Turkish İstanbul, formerly Constantinople, ancient Byzantium , largest city and seaport of Turkey. It was formerly the capital of the Byzantine Empire, of the Ottoman Empire, and—until 1923—of the Turkish Republic.The old walled city of Istanbul stands on a triangular peninsula between Europe and Asia. Sometimes as a bridge, sometimes as a barrier, Istanbul for more than 2,500 years has stood between conflicting surges of religion, culture, and imperial power. For most of those years it was one of the most coveted cities in the world.
Edinburgh is Scotland’s inspiring capital where centuries of history meet a world class city in an unforgettable setting.The city’s magnificent architecture shifts from the narrow closes of the medieval Old Town to the grace of the Georgian New Town. Above it all, with its towering splendour, stands Edinburgh Castle.A Unesco World Heritage Site, Edinburgh is a compact and bustling city yet home to the largest arts festival is the world.
Copenhagen is one of the coolest, most exciting and most cosmopolitan cities in Scandinavia, and the Danish capital is truly blossoming. A mixture of continued and prosperity and new architecture has put a spring in the city's step, and the capital is now bursting with more restaurants and cafes than ever. The extraordinary city is also stunningly beautiful, with cobbled squares, canals and copper spires defining the cityscape. There is an undeniable joie de vivre in the capital, and more and more travelers are falling in love with it each year.
One can easily be confused by the capital's different names through the years. The town was originally called Oslo. In the Middle Ages it was located on the east side of the Bjørvika inlet. After a dramatic fire in 1624, king Christian IV decided that the town be rebuilt in the area below the Akershus Fortress, and he changed its name to Christiania. From 1877 the name was spelled Kristiania, and in 1925 it was changed back to the original name, Oslo.
Brussels, Flemish Brussel, French Bruxelles, city, capital of Belgium. It is located in the valley of the Senne (Flemish: Zenne) River, a small tributary of the Schelde (French: Escaut). Greater Brussels is the country’s largest urban agglomeration. It consists of 19 communes, or municipalities, each with a large measure of administrative autonomy. The largest commune—which, like the greater metropolitan area, is named Brussels—contains the historic core of the city and the so-called “European Quarter,” where the institutions of the European Union (EU) are located.
The City became the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal principality in 1327, and then became a principality itself, “Grand Duchy of Moscow”. It became the capital of Soviet Union in 1918 after Russian Revolution of 1917. The city is surrounded by an ancient wall, Moscow wall, which dates back to 1156. The City hit highest death toll value in 1771. This was due to the plaque.It authorities burnt the city in 1812, known as Fire of Moscow. They wanted to keep it save from Napoleon.
Alicante is a port city on Spain’s southeastern Costa Blanca, and the capital of the Alicante province. Its old town, Barrio de la Santa Cruz, has narrow streets, colored houses and a nightlife scene. From here, an elevator or a steep climb leads to medieval Castillo de Santa Bárbara, set on a hilltop with sweeping views of the Mediterranean coast.
Gran Canaria is one of Spain’s Canary Islands, off northwestern Africa. It's known for its black lava and white sand beaches. Its southern beaches include bustling Playa del Inglés and Puerto Rico as well as quieter Puerto de Mogán and San Agustín. In the north, capital city Las Palmas is a major stop for cruise ships and duty-free shopping. The island’s interior is rural and mountainous.
Bucharest was founded several centuries earlier, by a controversial and rather legendary character named Bucur (from where the name of the city is said to derive). What is certain is the area on which nowadays Bucharest stretches has been inhabited since ancient times.
Lyon, also spelled Lyons, capital of both the Rhône département and the Rhône-Alpes région, east-central France, set on a hilly site at the confluence of the Rhône and Saône rivers. A Roman military colony called Lugdunum was founded there in 43 bce, and it subsequently became the capital of the Gauls. Lyon reached its peak of classical development in the 2nd century ce, during which time Christianity was introduced. In 177 the Christian community was persecuted by the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, and in 197 Lucius Septimius Severus decimated Lyon. In 1032 Lyon was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, but the real power lay with the city’s archbishops, whose influence caused important ecumenical councils to be held there in 1245 and again in 1274. Lyon was annexed to the kingdom of France in 1312.
It is easy to understand why Malaga City is capital of the Costa del Sol. Once considered the poor cousin of Andalusia’s capital city, Seville, it now competes successfully for attention, thanks to its profusion of quirky museums, delightful pedestrianised centre, innovative restaurants and stylish hotels, many featuring trendy rooftop terraces with bar, pool and stunning views. Muelle Uno is a contemporary leisure complex in the port - while a new arty district called SOHO is bringing a bohemian edge to the city.
Oviedo is a town in northwest Spain between the Cantabrian Mountains and the Bay of Biscay. The capital of Asturias, it’s known for its medieval old town, the site of the Gothic Oviedo Cathedral with its 9th-century Holy Chamber. The Archaeological Museum of Asturias, in a nearby convent, displays regional artifacts. The Fine Arts Museum of Asturias includes 2 palaces and has an expansive Spanish art collection.
One of Europe’s greatest hidden gems, Lisbon is a city of spectacular natural beauty, wondrous architecture and vast history. From its perch on the steep hillsides above the Rio Tejo, the Portuguese capital of Lisbon offers all the delights of other European capital without the fuss. It is the country's star attraction, filled with majestic monasteries, gothic cathedrals and quaint museums. The colorful cityscape is worth the trip alone, but the real delights to discover lie in the narrow lanes of the city's backstreets. There, sunshine-yellow trams snake their way through the tree-lined streets, passing the old quarter's public baths and tiny patio restaurants serving fresh bread and local wines while “fadistas” sing their traditional melancholic songs in the background.
First noted as a Roman settlement in 58 B.C., Geneva quickly grew into an important trading town in the heart Europe during the Middle Ages. Due to its strategic locale, the city was a major target of conquest and changed hands several times before eventually establishing itself as an independent republic in 1535.Known both as the «smallest of big cities», or the «city of peace», Geneva, among other things, is home to the European headquarters of UNO. The quayside of Lake Geneva, the parks, the old alleyways and smart boutiques are an invitation to a leisurely stroll.
Frankfurt am Main, English Frankfurt on the Main, city, Hessen Land (state), western Germany. The city lies along the Main River about 19 miles (30 km) upstream from its confluence with the Rhine River at Mainz. Pop. (2011) city, 667,925; (2000 est.) urban agglom., 3,681,000.
Hamburg, city and Land (state), located on the Elbe River in northern Germany. It is the country’s largest port and commercial centre.The Free and Hanseatic City (Freie und Hansestadt) of Hamburg is the second smallest of the 16 Länder of Germany, with a territory of only 292 square miles (755 square km). It is also the most populous city in Germany after Berlin and has one of the largest and busiest ports in Europe.
The history of the Beautiful Nice goes back to around 350 BC, when the Greeks founded a settlement on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, and called it Nikaia, after Nike, the Greek goddess of victory. However, in order to make a proper image of the historical background of Nice, one should also learn the site on which nowadays Nice stretches has been inhabited since prehistoric times.
Also known as a famous place for sweethearts, lovers, artists and poets, Venice is a magical city, which stretches across numerous small islands. It is often refered to as the city of "gondole", which are the means of transportation used to cross the numerous canals passing through the city.
The city of Zurich lies in the heart of Europe and at the center of Switzerland, on the northern shores of Lake Zurich. Its multicultural flair and the variety of leisure activities on offer attract guests from all over the world to this “region of short routes”. Zurich is quick and easy to reach, whether by train, plane or private vehicle
Munich, German München , city, capital of Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. It is Bavaria’s largest city and the third largest city in Germany (after Berlin and Hamburg). Munich, by far the largest city in southern Germany, lies about 30 miles (50 km) north of the edge of the Alps and along the Isar River, which flows through the middle of the city. Pop. (2003 est.), 1,247,873; (2011) 1,348,335.
Valencia is the third largest city in Spain and the largest port on the Mediterranean Western coast. It is a mix of some very modern buildings and beautiful old architecture. In 1957, Valencia suffered a severe flood by the Turia River with 16 feet of water in some streets. As a result, a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the southwestern suburbs of the city. The drained area was turned into a picturesque 4 mile park which bisects the city. It is used for sports, walking, and bicycling. The city has set up bike posts throughout the city where for a small yearly fee, people can pick up a bike in one spot and leave it at another.